Impact of Eugenol on Acetic Acid-induced Colitis in Rats

Document Type : Original Article



Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are immune-mediated chronic relapsing intestinal disorders characterized by the presence of an acute or chronic inflammatory process in the bowel wall. Eugenol essential oil is used in traditional medicine to treat digestive disorders such as gastrointestinal ulcers, indigestion, and inflammation of the intestines.
Aim: To investigate the effects of Eugenol on colitis in rat models.
Methods: Eugenol was administered per rectum (5 and 10 mg/kg) and intraperitoneally (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) for 6 days after induction of colitis by acetic acid. The changes were examined macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically and compared with Dexamethasone.
Results: Results showed a significant decrease in the macroscopic damage score (P < 0.05), and reduction in the weight ratio of the colon (P < 0.01), the histological signs of inflammation (P < 0.01) such as infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the mucosa, mucin depletion, crypt abscess, edema, and tissue damage, as well as leukocyte accumulation and myeloperoxidase level in compare with the colitis control group.
Conclusion: This animal trial demonstrates the beneficial anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects of Eugenol in the treatment of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Eugenol can potentially be advantageous as a supplemental remedy for the treatment of IBD.